纽约论坛-美国第一中文门户网站|纽约华人网站论坛

  • 广告/合作/建议
  • admin@nybbs.com
  • 微信 nybbs888

论坛广告

搜索
长期稳定供应,直邮美国,有意了解请联系本人,电话:13250716314  微信:2246474221 纽约车小二 - 车友必备神器!一站式体验服务! 精办美国签证,解决到境后的需求(工作) 海外华人首选试管代孕,供卵,专注成功率,经验丰富,成功为无数家庭带来希望 帮您圆梦生子。欢迎咨询 三个月150$,六个月200$,一年350$
全家福国际助孕机构_中国最权威的代孕方案解决专家 ee 海外最低价游戏点卡。秒充支付宝、微信、Q币、苹果APP 美国续航教育 运费节省40% 足不出户 在线填单 上门取件 全美境内上门取件 5-7天到中国
全球60,000多个地点为您对比经济型,豪华型,和家庭型的车款上可节省的租金,并为您找到最优价格保证 订单满50$免邮报税到中国! 三个月150$,六个月200$,一年350$ Groupon是一个美国本土团购网站 世界知名互联网域名注册商GoDaddy
海龟加速器 华人专属回国VPN  低至0.5元/天 下载即领现金券 高速稳定不掉线
查看: 3717|回复: 21

传媒学图书馆

[复制链接]
发表于 2009-7-12 07:37:43 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
开新贴之前,先上一些传播学入门的一些必备知识和重要的传播学名词观点的英文释义"    Approximately five hundred years ago a new form of communication arose. This "mass" communication process, which makes use of permanent text that can be made available to millions of people at the same time, has quickly become an important factor in the lives of many human beings.
By removing words from the world of sound where they had first had their origin in active human interchange and relegating them definitively to visual surface, and by otherwise exploiting visual space for the management of knowledge, print encouraged human beings to think of their own interior conscious and unconscious resources as more and more thing-like, impersonal and religiously neutral. Print encouraged the mind to sense that its possessions were held in some sort of inert mental space. - Walter J. Ong ": pW% V4 V- N" @5 t' e( k& q
# _+ @) x$ kE' "5 j. |4 S
For much of human history speech and body language were the only available forms of communication. This changed when writing was developed, probably around the year 3000 BC in the area of the world that we now call the Middle East.
The most obvious difference between writing and speech is in their media. Whereas speech is carried by sound waves in the air, writing is usually carried by one substance impressed upon another, as, for example, ink on paper. 4 |: d* Q
Currently, the most widely used medium for written communication is ink-on-paper. Although this will be used in the tutorial examples, the reader should remember that writing may use other media, including such as chalk-on-slate, carving-in-stone, smoke-in-air, pixels-on-screen, crayon-on-wall, paint-on-sidewalk and many others. ] Even in its simplest form, the invention of writing produced significant changes in human communication.
z- r- r1 e
The next major change came with the discovery of printed text in Europe in the late 1500s. Whereas written documents could only be produced by individuals, one document at a time, printed documents could be mass produced. The phenominon that we now call mass communication dates from the invention of print.
! f8 P$ X: v
Some scholars argue that the next great change occurred in or around 1950 with the discovery of the computer. However, while digital data processing certainly has brought changes to our society, we are perhaps too close to the date of its birth to evaluate it clearly.
TEXT2 o9 ]* r3 k! A, J7 |
The fact that writing remains in existence long after it has been created is so remarkable that we give a special name, text, to the visible remains. Humans receive textual messages via their eyes. It has been argued that this visual aspect of text is important in and of itself because it shapes the way human beings pay attention to their environment, and this shapes the way that they think about themselves. 5 $ t. Q+ "+ K9 s- c
TEXT AND MEANING# or7 V9 v3 N
As was shown earlier, the Shannon/Weaver Model describes communication as a process that includes a transmitter who initiates the communication, a signal that moves through a medium, a receiver who notices the signal, and noise that may alter the signal. ; O) ?6 Z; f, r5 h. D4 u" M+ E



3 \5 J8 ^: J* f
8 a- r$ }% F7 h( m& ^2 "5 \1 m9 H
In terms of this model, text can be seen as being created by the writer and then movingthrough time and space until it is encountered by the reader. The medium is light waves, and the signal is formed as light bounces off of the paper and ink and into the reader's eyes. While the text is in transit, noise may act to make it less understandable -- the writing may fade, for example, or pages may be torn or missing. " z* O: l; G! R9 n$ O9 }
; X* k( S( r6 {8 M6 N
This is accurate as far as it goes, but it does little to demonstrate how text relates to meaning. However, it is possible to produce a somewhat different model that is more amenable to the discussion of meaning.
9 G* ?, _3 T4 ?. e
  

% \6 y- x' U%

√√√√√√√ 分类黄页免费登记了,越早越靠前哦!赶紧进来登记吧! http://www.nybbs.com/portal.php?mod=list&catid=20

发表于 2009-7-12 08:55:53 | 显示全部楼层
The Writer's Intention, {. V0 e2 j, {$ Z
+ A# S( h6 g6 k& u; Y( C. Y
Perhaps the most familiar approach takes the point of view that the writer of the text, who is often called the author, created the text with the intention of communicating meaningfully with the reader. This is the approach that many of us encountered in our high school literature classes where we were taught, for example, thatwhen Herman Melville wrote Moby Dick, he intended for us to read the book and understand his thinking on the subject. ; B7 Z: r3 4 _3 "?) u) q, k
When the reader encounters such a text, he or she cannot be completely certain as to which of these meanings the writer intended. Further, the reader has leda life which contains different experiences that of the writer. Consequently, the reader is likely to make of the text something other than what the writer might have expected. ' ?+ Z! W$ Y1 O- w) n/ a6 Y




* @/ p9 G0 k/ G
In fact, those who adopt this approach point out that the reader need have no knowledge of the writer at all. Nor does the reader need to be concerned as to the writer's intentions. When the reader draws a meaning from the text, then that meaning is the reader's and the reader's alone. 0 M, R! }! E3 `- i# {# y
( x; I3 U& "5 P% X% |% J% U
Anonymous text fits this approach well, but in fact, any text that is read without knowledge of its author lends itself to the reader-oriented approach. ; k6 x/ Q! E. {3 ^) v
' v! Q' |Y0 n* d( M8 q
For example, consider this quotation:: T0 |4 p2 Z9 f: Y; c* I
2 "$ z! B1 \9 k- j, k2 x9 N

And she understood that the hour had come to herself." - The Author

发表于 2009-7-12 10:14:03 | 显示全部楼层
3: The Text Itself2 @! M9 ) E% ]! E& V" E. d
# {8 B- e2 G0 W+ L
This approach is adopted most frequently by those who study sacred texts. These, having been created by a deity, are taken to be composed entirely of truths, and in fact, it is not unusual for such texts to assert this as a primary fact. For example:
?1 "+ x. Q$ m6 P# U
In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. - John 1.1, Harper Study Bible, Revised Standard Version 8 `* U8 Z+ d6 ) T* Fs- d0 A
Every Word of God proves true... - Proverbs 30.5, Harper Study Bible, Revised Standard Version 5 H) Q, U6 o- K; l! ^

And similarly:
The basic book of Islam is the Koran. This is believed to be the divine law of God as uttered by Allah himself in revelations to Mohammed, and passed on by the Prophet through word of mouth.... The authority of the Koran is believed by good Moslems to be absolute. It is without any question the most influential, and the most widely read book in all Arabic literature, and probably the most faithfully read scripture in the world. - The Portable World Bible, ed. Roberto Ballou, Penguin Books, 1986.
  Z; f% l; s$ Q
If a text is taken in and of itself to contain the truth, then neither the intentions of its human writers nor the interpretations of its readers are relevant. The meaning is in the text, and if two readers disagree, then they must consult the text further in attempting to resolve the disagreement. There is no other authority.
  V% P& `c$ E: X
A telephone directory is a good example of a text that lends itself to this approach. A book that contains only names and phone numbers, and assuming that there are no errors, contains only the truth. As readers, we consult the book and take what it says as fact
  ^) D6 x* p' {) e; tR) `
Text As Environment
Although each of the previous approaches works well for some varieties of text, none of them works entirely well for all text. In fact, most of the text that we encounter was written by someone who intended to say something; most readers extract meanings that the writer did not intend; most text contains some truth. Given this, scholars continue to argue as to which of the three approaches is the most effective. 4 N% s; W9 K8 l$ V; s$ "8 N
A fourth approach attempts to resolve this dilemma by considering text as part of the human social environment. According to this approach, each author adds to the "communication environment," and each reader takes meanings from it. When considered from this point of view, the text is not separate from the world, but is part of it. Writers and readers, who are also part of the world, participate in the "textual experience."
  ". w' X



  As an example, consider the text called a "newspaper." Because many writers and editors contribute to each edition, there is no way to identify a single "author." As readers read the paper, they compare what they read to their experience in the world, and they discuss what they read with other readers. The meanings that readers take from the newspapers become the raw material of other texts, including such as the television and radio news of the day, and the next day's newspapers. The text of the newspaper is stored in libraries and other archives where it can be referenced at any time. Thus, the text becomes part of the fabric of the life of a society. 6 T+ i, c, h/ W3 Z; i

This goes deeper than the simple thought that "everyone reads more or less the same text." Because the codes by which humans communicate are shared by all members of the society, they, too, are part of the communication environment. This means that the texts, the people, the interpretations, and the rules that govern the interpretations are all mutually interactive. 9 T" d! h) I! V)
发表于 2009-7-12 11:32:13 | 显示全部楼层
DATA AS TEXT
An even broader definition of the term "text" arises from considering the maxim that "you can't not communicate." An the words of Anthony Wilden:7 M2 [* "W3 H6 I& ^
Let it be emphasized that the communication of information does not necessarily imply the use of language, nor consciously perceived sending or receiving, nor consciously intended communication, nor consciously noted understanding. As already noted, every act, every pause, every movement in living and social systems is also a message; silence is communication; short of death it is impossible for an organism or a person not to communicate.WildenA# N" C9 W

Thus, those who accept the existence of the communication environment, are driven to conclude that any source of information might be considered as text. - s, q2 y1 J8 g# V
0 ". X$ L* Q( Q( K( R+ c
For example, natural phenomena can be "read" -- a red sunset tells the watcher that it might rain tomorrow, flocks of geese flying south indicate that winter is near, and so on. In terms of this approach, scholars may view the physical world as a large, complex text which communicates a part of reality to its human readers. This notion is similar to the text-oriented approach that was described above -- the world is a text whose meaning is "true," and as observers, humans must try to puzzle out its meaning.
发表于 2009-7-12 12:50:23 | 显示全部楼层
THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS! W, ]% p' f! j' U
The essence of "communication" is that it is a process -- an activity that serves to connect senders and receivers of messages through space and time. Although human beings tend to be interested primarily in the study of human communication, the process is present in all living things and, it can be argued, in all things. From this we may conclude that communication is a fundamental, universal process. .  a system for sending and receiving messages, as by telephone, telegraph, radio, etc. b)  a system as of routes for moving troops and materiel c) a passage or way of getting from one place to another 5.  a) the art of expressing ideas, esp. in speech and writing b) the science of transmitting information, esp. in symbols." - Webster's New World Dictionary, 2nd College Edition. Q2 L* _8 \7 q1 N6 ?9 _

How often have you heard statements such as these? " x( `7 d% q* Nu
3 w0 J& K) d; U4 k- R

If you want to be promoted, you'll have to improve your communication skills. ! t. n& {) a$ Y
One of the strengths of our relationship over the years has been that we communicate so well - in fact, usually I know what she's thinking before she tells me!
The lightening storm knocked out our communication systems, and since then we haven't handled a single customer call. % H9 w* G4 Y# "& ^: h' r8 f1 q
He's really smart, and he knows his stuff, but as a teacher he just doesn't communicate it very well.
They say they built the product to meet our specifications, but it's not what we asked for - I think we have a communication problem here. ) k: w( K% f1 _8 "9 O6 a' w- F- ?

The word "communicate" derives from the word "common" - to share, exchange, send along, transmit, talk, gesture, write, put in use, relate. So an investigation of this subject might begin with the question: What do all studies of communication have in common? What are the shared concepts that make the study of "communication" different from the study of subjects such as "thought" or "literature" or "life?" When someone says, "this is a communication problem," what does that mean? : U& Y0 W& o7 w) n1 p# }3 p
* H0 h0 H( ^: D
This tutorial begins with one of the definitions of "communication" that is included in the dictionary entry that starts this section:, H" h- |9 N, z+ "( ]% }) u* V
" M8 LQ+ y( @0 v/ v

Communication: a system for sending and receiving messages.

x1 |) P, Zx
An investigation of this statement will lead first to the idea of a system, and then to the idea of messages.
发表于 2009-7-12 15:26:43 | 显示全部楼层
THE ROLE OF COMMUNICATION
  5 ^5 w" E( u
Notice that these example systems have communication in common. / y( ]7 U+ a; b1 S: ^
8 a- c9 Z, x2 r8 s
The nervous system carries messages from the nerve endings in our extremities to our brains and back.
The legal system includes thousands of individuals talking to one another, laws being read and interpreted, forms being filled out, and so on. - d, G1 k; n, E- E
The highway system requires constant communication among drivers - turn signals, brake lights, and so on - and between drivers and their vehicles - as, for example, when you "tell" your car to turn left by pulling on the steering wheel.( V8 G0 f- r% Z5 ^

In fact, it might be said that communication is the "glue" that holds a system together. This gives insight into the nature of communication itself, to wit:
  Communication Connects( D0 K$ N1 R9 v0 n
5 M7 G8 r/ P) r% L
But communication is not merely passive connection. Rather, communication is the process of connecting. It is a collection of renewable actions that work throughout space and over time to form relationships among objects. 4 Q$ ^/ d( y- G* j

Communication is not an object itself; it is not a thing, and this leads to a second insight into the nature of communication.+ d* J" S6 M% C/ E

  Communication Happens* x( V* q5 m0 ?/ L& l

: L( N, t) x
This is an important observation. It implies that communication can never fully be understand by looking only at "things." To understand communication, we must also look at the relationships among the "things" and at the environments in which the "things" reside. 9008 , k4 p, k# F. M" D/ k; c
8 O, ^" `7 Z/ H0 X2 {, s; w0 T
For example, consider some common communication "things":

a paperback copy of Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol, / C3 c4 R9 E6 ^- b3 F( m
a video tape of the CNN 6:00 news broadcast on May 5th, 1990, * Y- ?6 S/ A4 k$ E
a written invitation to attend my sister's wedding. 9002 8 @8 Y6 `- |' l4 E) J
In each case the thing - the actual book, the actual video tape, the actual invitation - is not the communication. 8 mS) @) b@
) W- Z" c. W8 L; k7 ]
The communication is the process that connects the readers of the book to the story told by the author. - l, c* n" _5 P: Q5 |; ^( W
The communication is the process that connects the watchers of the broadcast to the events of the day.
The communication is the process that connects my sister and I via the announcement of her wedding. o9 i- @! N; @/ q* X( h: M
True, the book, the tape and the invitation are a part of the communication process, but they are only a part.
There are additional observations to be drawn from these examples. 0 v6 k" u2 q: T) i, v& Y( e
  Communication always happens between or among - it takes at least two to communicate.
  Communication involves an exchange - of electrical signals, of sounds, words, pages of print, or whatever. 9 S) v. P) D. G; L' u
For ease, these exchanges among communicators will be given the general name: messages.  u$ f6 s' I
Notice, for example, that each of the previous set of examples contained sender and a receiver and a message. The book was written by its author to be read by its audience. The video tape was produced by one group of people to be watched by another. And the invitation is a message sent from my sister to me.
  The idea of "messages" is considered at length in these tutorials. At this point, however, it is appropriate to reiterate the two basic rules that have just been uncovered: X& d2 zu+ L* s0 s3 Y

Communication is a process that happens among and acts to connect communicators through space and over time.
  Communication involves the creation, transmission, and reception of messages.  
发表于 2009-7-12 18:03:03 | 显示全部楼层
4. Finally, consider a situation in which a home computer wakes itself at midnight (the hour at which the rates go down), dials the telephone number of an on-line data service, transmits the proper access codes for the service, downloads a particular data file, signs off, hangs up, saves the file to its disk, and turns itself off. , k( V/ |! Z/ E/ ^7 X1 M




  This kind of machine-to-machine communication has become increasingly common since the late-1950s (when computers began to be manufactured and sold in large numbers). Over the same time period, computers have become smaller and smaller, until today some machines - automobiles, for example - contain many computers that "talk" to one another continually to control and manage the machine.7 N: q- "# P3 u

\4 c' W5 o4 M: |
Perhaps one of the most useful of these is the telephone system itself. Each telephone is a computer terminal, and when we dial a number, we send a program to the central phone computer asking it to locate and "ring" a terminal somewhere in the system.* J# R9 K, ^4 JQ* P" e
7 "& l( ^7 BJ3 H8 F

Interestingly, it was the study of telephone transmissions that led to the development of one of the most widely used models of communication. That model is described in the next section.$ |3 a( O. s, uV* a. @% y# ]( o
  
发表于 2009-7-12 20:39:24 | 显示全部楼层
本贴开始

目录

#12楼,什么是媒体

#13楼,why study the media, 传媒学门槛,根本的理论

#14楼,media power, 媒体的力气

#15楼,the British media, 英国的媒体表面

#16楼,the public sphere, 哈贝马斯,媒体雄共规模理论

#17楼,the political economy of communication and culture, 媒体政治经济学

#18楼,media and belonging, 媒体和归属感
发表于 2009-7-13 00:33:54 | 显示全部楼层
chapter 1.pdf(180 KB)
发表于 2009-7-13 03:10:14 | 显示全部楼层
英国的媒体,到底是一个什么样子这层楼,重要是讲,英国的媒体,是一个什么样子

由台甫鼎鼎的media research group供应的资料

您需要登录后才可以回帖 登录 | 注册

本版积分规则

×本站发帖友情提示
1、注册用户在本社区发表、转载的任何作品仅代表其个人观点,不代表本社区认同其观点。
2、如果存在违反国家相关法律、法规、条例的行为,我们有权在不经作者准许的情况下删除其在本论坛所发表的文章。
3、为了防止垃圾信息,您发布的帖子内含有任何连接或者网址,将会被系统自动进入审核状态,我们将会在6个小时内给予审核
4、如您有任何问题请随时加微信 nybbs888 或者 admin@nybbs.com  

纽约论坛官方代购,所有产品均为美国直邮!正品保证!需要请加微信haiwaigoucom
值得买

纽约论坛官方微信

客服服务

工作时间 周一至周六 8:00-17:30

广告联系 admin@nybbs.com

客服QQ点击咨询

微信公众号

论坛微信群

Copyright © 2011-2015 http://www.nybbs.com All Rights Reserved. Discuz!X3.3

快速回复 返回顶部 返回列表